Newly built houses on a riverside


R.1.i Energy Hierarchy

3.63 A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) should be completed at the design stage to identify improvements to the design with regard to embodied energy and carbon footprint of the proposal.

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R.1.ii Energy Efficiency

3.65 Where glazing is expansive to encourage solar gain, the design should incorporate measures to prevent overheating, such as recessing glazing, incorporating natural ventilation, projecting eaves, canopies or similar. These measures should also reduce the glare and light pollution that such openings may emit.

3.66. Designs must strike a balance between reducing glazing on northerly facing elevation to reduce heat loss while ensuring that sufficient daylight reaches the main rooms of the house for the health of the occupiers. Designers can consider the daylight factor and how to allow daylight into rooms, for example through sunpipes, rooflights, glazing that is not conventional windows high windows above eye level (clerestories), angling the plasterwork around windows to increase daylighting or the internal layout of spaces.

3.67 Large areas of glazing do not reinforce local distinctiveness or sense of place. Outside of urban areas large areas of glazing can also result in light pollution which both national policy and the Local Plan seek to avoid. In sensitive landscape locations the extensive use of glazing is unlikely to be acceptable.

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1. In order to maximise solar gain without leading to overheating the proportion of each dwelling elevation that is to be glazed should fit into the following ranges:

1a. North 10-15%

1b. East 10-15%

1c. South 20-25%

1d. West 10-15%

2. In order to reduce heat loss through external walls; terraced or semi detached houses, maisonettes, or flats are to be built rather than detached houses.

3. Tree planting and other soft landscaping features are to be used to provide shading and wind buffering to void excess cooling/heating of building interiors.

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  1. Soft and permeable landscaping for free draining.
  2. Solar shading on south elevation.
  3. Natural cross ventilation.
  4. Inset solar PV or solar thermal panels.
  5. Air source heat pump.
  6. Screening to air source heat pump.
  • A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is to be completed at the design stage to identify embodied carbon hotspots and mitigate these where possible through improved design.
  • An energy statement that assesses the potential for renewable energy generation on site must also be provided.
  • Building design should follow the LETI (London Energy Transformation Initiative) Climate Emergency Design Guide , with specific reference to the small-scale residential architype guidance. The following targets should be set – alongside other guidance on heating and hot water and demand response:
    • Energy Use Intensity target of 35 kWh/m2/yr excluding renewable energy contribution
    • Space heating demand target of 15 kWh/m2/yr
    • Embodied carbon target of <500 kgCO2/m2

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R.2.i Embodied Energy

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3.68 To minimise the carbon generated through construction and development, new development must:

  • Re-use and adapt existing buildings and building materials, especially traditional buildings and materials that contribute to local distinctiveness such as locally quarried stone and slate.
  • Use locally sourced and/or low carbon building materials such as:
    • Sustainably sourced timber
    • Locally quarried building stone and aggregate
    • Locally quarried slate
    • Natural lime for mortars, renders and limewashes
  • Minimise the use of building materials that require large amounts of energy and resources to produce and/or cannot be readily recycled:
    • Concrete and cement, including in render and other finishes
    • uPVC, aluminium and steel-framed glazing, windows and doors (aluminium is preferred to uPVC)
    • Avoid synthetic materials such as artificial roof tiles or cladding

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R.2.ii Construction

3.69 To promote a circular economy and reduce the emissions associated with the end-of-life use stage, building methods and materials that can be dissembled and recycled should be prioritised.

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R.2.iv Water

3.70 Rainwater harvesting systems should be installed in all new developments. This will ease the pressure on the local water supply during drought periods.

3.71 Where there is new or redesigned greenspace, new development must achieve species diversity and planting resilient tree and plant species based on the projected changes in climate in the area, ensuring the development is resilient to the potential climate risks facing the Lake District. Forest Research’s ESC4 tool should be used when deciding on the appropriate tree species composition for planting.

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