Supplementary Planning Document Requirements

This section illustrates the existing land uses and allocated mixed use site (CSE01M Orrest Head Farm), and outlines the locations of the traffic and movement improvements in the context of heritage considerations, open space and green infrastructure framework, and the design and layout framework.

It presents an option of how transport improvements within the Windermere Gateway area could be developed including traffic, pedestrian and cycling movement and public transport in and around Windermere Station and the access to support the future delivery of the Orrest Head Farm site (Allocation CSE01M). The detail of how the Orrest Head Farm Allocation will be delivered will be determined through subsequent pre-application and planning application stages.

Figure showing different land use across Windermere

Figure 8: Land use

Delivering Transport and Movement Improvements

The following key considerations need to be made in the context of a planning application that involves transport and movement improvements within the Windermere Gateway SPD area.

Proposed alterations to the highway network including the design of roads, footways, footpaths and cycleways must be designed with due regard to the appropriate standards in the Cumbria Development Design Guide, the Design Manual for Roads and Bridges and Local Transport Notes.

General design principles

The following general design principles should be considered in relation to transport and movement improvements within the context of and in addition to the requirements of Policy 21 of the Local Plan (Sustainable access and travel):

  • A balanced approach to meet the needs of all users, prioritising sustainable transport and the safety of pedestrians and cyclists and the needs of visually / mobility impaired people whilst improving the experience for visitors;
  • Improved vehicular access to the station and adjoining uses from the A591, and appropriate new signage to direct users to the Station, Lakeland and Booths;
  • Improved vehicular access to the Orrest Head Farm site;
  • Improved sustainable transport infrastructure and facilities such as electric vehicle charging infrastructure for bikes, cars, and busses;
  • Well integrated parking for the station, Lakeland and Booths;
  • Improved pedestrian and cycling mobility within the SPD area and links to provide onward mobility to Windermere town centre and the wider network. To encourage active travel, new footpath/cycle routes should be attractive, welcoming and use natural surveillance. They should not be added as an afterthought, squeezed into a passageway and resulting in substandard and unattractive links;
  • Layouts and routes that are easy to ‘read’ and navigate around;
  • Safe and pleasant pedestrian and cycle routes, with sufficient levels of natural surveillance and designed with the needs of disabled users in mind;
  • Integration of green corridors and active travel routes into the movement network, separated from roads where appropriate;
  • Appropriate lighting of routes, balancing safety needs with light pollution and impact on heritage assets; and
  • Careful choice of surfacing that enhances the design of the scheme and takes account of environmental sustainability (e.g. permeable paving), future maintenance  and technical requirements for adoption by the highways authority.

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Traffic and Movement Strategy

Illustration showing traffic and movement strategy

Figure 9: Traffic and Movement Strategy

Policy requirements:

  • Policy 13 of the Local Plan: “Central and South East Distinctive Area” explains that support will be given to the enhancement of Windermere Station and its role as a transport interchange.
  • Policy 21 of the Local Plan: “Sustainable access and travel” supports the development of sustainable transport infrastructure to broaden and encourage use of sustainable travel choices for visitors thereby reducing the need to travel by private vehicle.
  • Policy 14 and allocation CSE01M of the Local Plan: “Orrest Head Farm” explains that a new junction alignment / roundabout should be provided at the A591 / Thwaites Lane junction together with road widening and footways on Thwaites Lane.

To meet these policy requirements, the indicative proposals show the provision of two roundabouts to upgrade the existing A591 / High Street and the existing A591 / Thwaites Lane junctions.

The following issues in relation to traffic and movement would need to be considered at the planning application stage:

Illustration of traffic movement

Upgrade of the existing A591 / High Street junction to a priority-controlled roundabout

  • The roundabout would need to be designed to give due consideration to existing traffic flow and congestion at the junction, without creating a junction of a scale that is out of keeping with the character of the area.
  • The roundabout would need to have four arms to connect the A591 with High Street and provide an exit from the station.
  • The roundabout would have an inscribed circle diameter of 32m and would need to sit within the existing junction footprint on highway land where possible.
  • The A591 and High Street would need to be reconfigured to accommodate the roundabout. The A591 would need to remain as a single carriageway but the flare at the roundabout give-way in both directions would allow for a straight-ahead lane and a turning lane.
  • The existing station access road would operate as an one-way road for exiting the station area.
  • The roundabout would be designed with consideration to retaining the existing on-street parking on the High Street approach.
  • Cars and cyclists at a stone laid roundabout

    Poyton, Cheshire - Roundabout with material changes to reduce speeding and creating an attractive streetscene.

  • Close up of stone laid roundabout

    Material changes to the roundabout.

  • Stone laid roundabout in keeping with historic character of the town

    The roundabout material is in keeping with the historical character of the town.

Illustration showing the Thwaites Lane roundabout location

Upgrade of the existing A591 / Thwaites Lane junction to a priority-controlled roundabout;

  • The A591 would be reconfigured to accommodate the roundabout and would remain a single carriageway road, but the flare at the roundabout give-way would allow for a straight-ahead lane and a turning lane in both directions.
  • The roundabout would need to have four arms to connect the A591 with Thwaites Lane and provide a one-way station access road.
  • The roundabout would have an inscribed circle diameter of 30m.
  • The station access road would also provide access to Lakeland and Booths retail stores.

Further information in relation to both roundabouts is contained within the Highways Technical Note.

  • People walking past a large map and information board.

    Large, clear signage with signposting to key destinations and a map for Navigating in Coal Drops Yard, London.

  • Colourful arrows along a wooden fence next to a path.

    Colourful graphics lead people in the right direction at Sherwood Forest Country Park.

  • A historic stone manor house with large letters TGLE in front.

    Contemporary signage contrasts with historic architecture to welcome people to The Good Life Experience in Hawarden.

Access to the Orrest Head Farm site

The A591 / Thwaites Lane roundabout would need to provide access via Thwaites Lane to the Orrest Head Farm development. This strategic site is around 9.05 ha and is allocated in the Local Plan under Policy 14 and allocation CSE01M for a mixed-use development comprising of around 160 no. dwellings and 1,200 square metres of employment floorspace and 3,800 square metres of tourism floorspace. As set out above, the detail of how the Orrest Head Farm allocation will be delivered will be determined through the pre-application and planning application stages. However, the delivery of the A591 / Thwaites Lane roundabout would assist in meeting the following requirement of policy CSE01M:

“New junction alignment/roundabout provision together with road widening and footways on Thwaites Lane are required. Ensure consideration is given to Orrest Head House junction, and this is incorporated into any roundabout proposals if located in the proximity to this junction.”

An indicative access point to the Orrest Head Farm development is shown on Figure 9.

  • Wide vehicle entrance from main road to a hotel

    Low Wood Bay Resort and Spa vehicular access, sensitive entrance approach including stone and slate boundary walls and vegetation.

  • Stone wall with sign for Low Wood Bay Resort and Spa

    Low Wood Bay Resort and Spa vehicular access, sensitive entrance approach including stone and slate boundary walls and vegetation.

  • Entrance to hotel from road.

    Low Wood Bay Resort and Spa vehicular access, sensitive entrance approach including stone and slate boundary wall and vegetation.

  • View from hotel entrance across road to Lake Windermere.

    Low Wood Bay Resort and Spa vehicular access, sensitive entrance approach including stone and slate boundary walls and vegetation.

  • Road junction with signs set into stone wall.

    Grasmere access, Easedale road - stone and slate boundary walls announce the access road, with a set-back bench and signage.

  • Road junction with dry stone walls.

    Grasmere, Broadgate Orchard affordable housing access - stone and slate boundary walls with paths for pedestrians.

Improvements for pedestrians and cycles

These are shown on the traffic and movement strategy diagram (Figure 9) as follows:

  • The highway improvements designed above also need to contribute towards providing a high quality walking and cycling network with supporting facilities to improve pedestrian and cycling mobility within the SPD area through improved footpaths, crossings, signage, surfaces and cycle parking.
  • New pedestrian / cycle linkages should be provided to integrate the Gateway area with the town and surrounding area where possible and give priority to pedestrian and cycle movements.
  • The Orrest Head Farm development should be connected by sustainable transport to surrounding areas so that it increases the attractiveness of walking and cycling. Opportunities should be taken to link to the adjacent cycle network, and to public rights of way to the town to the south, and Orrest Head viewpoint to the north as set out in policy CSE01M.
  • Cycle infrastructure would need to comply with the guidance contained within the Government’s Local Transport Note 1/20 (Cycle infrastructure design).
  • Aerial view over Windermere High Street.

    Windermere High Street - Pedestrian crossings with change of surface material, cycle parking options, and sensitively designed bollards.

  • Iron work cycle parking on a cobbled surface.

    Windermere High Street - cycle parking options.

  • Cobbled road surface on Windermere High Street.

    Windermere High Street - Pedestrian crossings with change of surface material.

  • Bollards on a stone flag pavement in Windermere.

    Windermere High Street - Sensitively designed bollards.

  • Bikes parked on a cobbled street in Copenhagen.

    Copenhagen, designated cycle lanes and change in surface materiality.

  • Children climbing on bicycle parking.

    Playful bicycle parking, Stockport.

  • Cobbled street surface with a bicycle symbol laid in stone.

    Change in surface material clearly marks the cycleway.

  • Stone laid pedestrain crossing on a rural road.

    Pedestrian crossings in Grasmere. (© Capita Real Estate And Infrastructure; Cumbria County Council)

  • Cobbled area across a road in a village in France.

    A change in surface materials creates a clear pedestrian priority environment in Brittany, France.

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Heritage Considerations

There is significant heritage interest relating to this area including the World Heritage Site, the Windermere Conservation Area, listed buildings and other buildings of architectural interest within this area.

Provisional advice regarding the access proposals has been provided in an initial Heritage Impact Assessment by the National Park Authority’s Heritage Advisor and World Heritage Site Coordinator which is provided as a supporting document to this SPD. In summary:

  • There would be some localised harm to the attributes of the Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) of the World Heritage Site (WHS) in some cases. However, the proposals would not have an overall impact on WHS in terms of integrity and authenticity and would not diminish the contribution that Windermere valley makes to the WHS at a whole nor reduce the value of the OUV of the WHS.
  • The proposed highway works would result in a moderate to major change to the appearance at the site of both roundabouts and negatively impact on the character and appearance of this part of the conservation area. However, then proposals would facilitate development which could have a positive impact on the wider conservation area in terms of changes to the transport hub of the railway station and bus station, as well as alleviating pressure on the road network along Windermere High Street.
  • The proposals would harm both the setting and significance of listed buildings many of which are Victorian. UNESCO recommended at the time of inscription that careful attention is paid to conservation of landscape defining features such as land use patterns, structures such as dry stone walls and vernacular architecture and Victorian buildings. The proposals would cause less than substantial harm and all efforts to minimise and mitigate such harm in the design, and landscaping of the proposals would be essential at the design stage.
  • In terms of benefits to the OUV of the WHS, there is potential for a moderately good impact on early tourist infrastructure from the proposals to facilitate improvements to the railway station and bus station and so improve the arrival experience for visitors to the WHS and the conservation area.
  • In addition, the proposed highway works are to assist in facilitating the access to the Orrest Head Farm development site and there is a public benefit in the provision of affordable housing which will sustain the WHS communities and address affordable housing and depopulation of resident population.
  • If present prior to inscription, the access proposals would not have caused harm to the process of inscription of the site as a WHS and would not cause concern over the future of the WHS.
  • The Heritage Impact Assessment will need to be updated as more details become available in relation to both the improvements around the station and the development at the Orrest Head Farm site.

Figure 10: Heritage considerations

Heritage Requirements

  • As above, an initial Heritage Impact Assessment (HIA) has been prepared on the indicative design concepts for the access improvements. However, this will need to be updated as more details become available. The HIA is required to provide a detailed and proportionate assessment of heritage significance and an assessment of impact. This will identify the heritage values that exist on and adjacent to the area, and the impact of any scheme on these; and
  • A detailed design mitigation strategy will be provided to ensure that designated and non-designated heritage assets will not be adversely affected, and the setting of the World Heritage Site and Conservation Area protected.
  • A statue and seating in a city street.

    Goose Green, Altrincham - Heritage interpretation through use of materiality and symbolism in the street furniture and signage.

  • Symbolic geese-like seats on a city street

    Goose Green, Altrincham - Heritage interpretation through use of materiality and symbolism in the street furniture and signage.

  • Bird footprints on a city street.

    Goose Green, Altrincham - Heritage interpretation through use of materiality and symbolism in the street furniture and signage.

  • Metal statue in a city pedestrian area.

    Public art references heritage and enhances sense of place at Timekeeper's Square, Salford.

  • A stone building with modern stone paving outside.

    Historic architecture and contemporary landscape work in harmony at this public space in Dublin.

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Design and Layout Framework

The key design principle is the creation of an attractive, functional and sustainable gateway to Windermere which creates a sense of arrival, improves resident and the visitor experiences and encourages the use of sustainable travel choices. The design must be sympathetic to the local context and respect the landscape setting of the area and enhance the existing transition from the urban edge to open countryside.

General design principles

General design principles that should be considered in any proposal include:

  • A careful and imaginative response to local character that helps to enhance local distinctiveness and the special qualities of the local area. The appraisal of local character should consider local building forms, styles and materials,
  • Creative, imaginative and innovative designs and creation of recognizable character and a sense of place.
  • Design that responds to the site and its context and takes advantage of existing topography, landscape features and views.
  • Creative use of materials which reflect and complement local character, are durable and if possible locally sourced and have high environmental sustainability credentials.
  • Well defined streets and spaces with clear routes, local landmarks and marker features and detailing to help people find their way around.
  • Working with the contours of the land, in terms of orientation and layout, and sustainable drainage systems.
  • Clearly defined (through appropriate boundary treatments) public and private spaces that are attractive and safe.
  • Explore opportunities to protect, enhance and create wildlife habitats and be creative in landscape design.
  • Careful treatment of boundaries, to ensure a high quality and sensitive transition between built up areas and the countryside.
  • Proposals will take a balanced approach to movement and provide for the needs of all users of the streets and spaces, not just the needs of vehicles. Safe access for pedestrians and cyclists must be provided.
  • Key views, including of Lake Windermere will need to be retained.
  • A comprehensive surface water drainage strategy which incorporates SUDS should be delivered.

Figure 11: Design and layout framework

Arrival Spaces

  • Trees and seating in a pedestrian city area.

    Stoke bus station. Integration of mature trees in the streetscene, along with street furniture including benches and canopy features.

  • A totem style statue in the middle of a road crossing.

    A change in surface treatment and a bespoke totem announce arrival into Altrincham

  • People sat on public outside seating in a city pedestrian area.

    Seating provides a place to rest and enjoy the sun whilst the paving pattern creates a subtle focal point at this public space in Dublin.

  • People sat on tiered seating around a tree outside a rail station.

    The level change is utilised as an integral design feature at Kings Cross in London.

  • A road with a random dash line pattern on the surface

    Playful surface materials clearly lead the way at Kings Crescent in London.

High Quality Streets for All

  • Wide pavement with someone sat on a bench looking out to the lakeshore.

    Attractive, well-defined street - The Glebe, Bowness Bay (© : Capita Real Estate and Infrastructure; Cumbria County Council)

  • People walking on a wide pavement next to a one way road.

    Generous pavements and carefully considered materials create a balanced streetscape at The Glebe, Bowness Bay (©: Capita Real Estate and Infrastructure; Cumbria County Council)

  • Wide pavement outside a cafe on a city street.

    Wide pavements accommodate spill-out space and cafe culture in Altrincham.

  • Cafe seating outside on a pavement with people walking past.

    Cafes and restaurants are encouraged to spill-out into the public realm to activate the edges of this space in London.

  • A pedestrian area of a city at night with people walking past outside restaurant seating.

    Plenty of spill-out space, bespoke seating and attractive lighting create a lively little public space full of character in Altrincham.

  • Cars parked on town street with wide pavement next to a cafe.

    Windermere High Street, wide pavements for spill-out and pedestrian movement. Change in road surface material marks street priorities.

  • Cobbled street area next to a tarmac road.

    Windermere High Street, wide pavements for spill-out and pedestrian movement. Change in road surface material marks street priorities.

Boundary Treatments

  • Stone wall with a property entrance gateway inset.

    Stone walls with integrated gates create a characterful boundary treatment at The Terrace.

  • Dry stone wall with a small opening at ground level to allow water and wildlife to pass through.

    Dry stone boundary wall in Windermere, with opening for wildlife and surface water run-off.

  • Dry stone wall at the entrance to a farm with a sign set into the wall.

    Dry stone boundary wall in Windermere, with engraved slate signage

  • Stone wall with metal railings above.

    Stone and slate boundary wall in Windermere with metal railings

  • Thin metal railings in front of shrubbery.

    Planting and delicate railings combine to create a soft but neat boundary treatment at Tatton Park.

  • A woven fence in amongst trees.

    A woven fence blends seamlessly with the landscape at Orrest Head.

  • A slatted wooden fence on top of a low brick wall.

    Low walls and timber fencing create a visually permeable boundary whilst maintaining privacy at Marmalade Lane, Cambridge.

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Ecology and Biodiversity

The following guidance should be taken into account in order to protect and maximise net biodiversity gains across the SPD area:

  • To enhance biodiversity gain, new tree planting should be considered;
  • Use of naturalised SUDs features should be considered as these can increase the biodiversity value;
  • Existing drystone walls present a core biodiversity asset and should be retained and repaired where possible.
  • Existing trees and scrub should be protected during the construction period and beyond. The loss of any trees should be mitigated by planting of others of equal or greater ecological value.
  • The development should wherever possible incorporate wildlife friendly features such as swift and swallow boxes, bat bricks, hedgehog hole fencing and habitat piles.
  • Detailed habitat and species surveys as appropriate may be required at the planning application stage.
  • An assessment of all potential ecological impacts based on up to date baseline data will be used to inform any planning application and measures set out therein to protect and enhance habitats and species.
  • A bug hotel made of wooden palettes and bricks with a moss roof.

    A bug hotel welcomes wildlife at Hardcastle Crags, West Yorkshire.

  • Interpretation sign amongst a planted flower bed.

    Citylabs, Old St Mary's site, Manchester. Signage in plant beds to illustrate the biodiversity benefits of the plants.

  • A moss and plant covered roof on a modern building.

    Green roof - Lakeland, Lake District

  • A child running through small bolders and meadow plants and flowers.

    Suds incorporated into the landscape, providing natural play.

  • A hand-painted sign in a meadow flower bed next to a visitors entrance building.

    Sherwood Forest Country Park

  • Planters with herbs and edible plants in.

    Noma, the adaptable garden

  • A vertical wall covered in plants.

    Green wall - Trinity, Salford.

  • Large flat rocks amongst grass and tree planting next to a pathed walkway.

    Canobury Station, London - suds incorporated into public realm.

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Landscape, Open Space and Green Infrastructure Framework

Green Infrastructure is the term given to a network of multi-functional spaces that can enhance existing and create new wildlife habitats, mitigate against or help adapt to climate change (for example through surface water management and tree planting) and provide recreational and health and wellbeing benefits for people. It can be made up of a range of assets such as waterways, ponds, open spaces, parks and gardens, play areas, footpaths, allotments, woodlands, hedgerows, trees, playing fields, green roofs/walls and the wider countryside. The multi- functional nature of green infrastructure elements should be borne in mind in considering the design and layout of the access proposals and the Orrest Head Farm site.

General Principles

  • New landscaping should incorporate native plant and tree species.
  • Consideration of how smaller areas of open space with informal recreation/wildlife habitat value can be interspersed throughout the area and help contribute to the wider green infrastructure network.
  • Careful consideration of lighting, to ensure a balance between safety, light pollution, impacts on wildlife and visual and residential amenity.
  • Designing green infrastructure to be less maintenance intensive and more environmentally sustainable.

Existing features

  • Existing features such as stone walls, hedges and trees should be incorporated into the green infrastructure framework wherever possible.
  • Where the loss of features cannot be avoided, the loss should be mitigated through replacement features within new open spaces.
    Existing drainage features should be retained/incorporated into the design and where possible enhanced.

Green corridors

  • Should form an integral part of the green infrastructure framework, where possible.
  • Can be located next to roads, within linear green spaces and provide linkages with open spaces, neighbouring areas, roads and facilities.
  • Can be used to create green buffers between areas.
  • Consideration should be given to placing directional signs on key routes indicating local destinations and travel times and distances.

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Figure 12: Landscape, Open Space and Green Infrastructure Framework

  • Large flat rocks amongst grass and tree planting next to a pathed walkway.

    Canobury Station, London - suds incorporated into public realm.

  • Man sat on a bench with tall grasses and meadow plants behind.

    Grey to green, West Bar, Sheffield - suds integrated into the public realm strategy.

  • A bridge over a stream with the path leading to a housing estate.

    Trumpington Meadows, Cambridge - Swale running across scheme, coherently integrating with the rural setting.

  • New housing block with tree and tall grass planting in front and a small drainage ditch.

    Trumpington Meadows, Cambridge - Swale running across scheme, coherently integrating with the rural setting.

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Other guidance

Flood Risk and Drainage Requirements

A site-specific flood risk assessment will be required to accompany the planning application.

Surface Water Drainage

A surface water drainage strategy which incorporates SUDS should be designed into the scheme at an early stage and will be required to accompany the planning application. Discharge of surface water to the combined sewer network should be avoided wherever possible, and attenuated if connection is required.

Environment Sustainability

Opportunities for enhancing the environmental sustainability of the development should be considered at the outset so that environmental considerations can help inform the design process. General guiding principles for development include:

  • Careful selection of building materials with good environmental credentials, and exploring opportunities for locally sourced and reclaimed materials where possible;
  • Seizing opportunities for maximising passive solar gain and natural lighting;
  • Incorporating water conservation measures; and
  • Promoting sustainable transport modes through for example careful layouts and road design to ensure an attractive and safe environment for cyclists and pedestrians.

Air quality

As set out in the Transport and Movement Framework, measures should be taken to maximise opportunities for people to use modes of transport other than the private car for their day-to-day needs. The wider green infrastructure framework, including appropriate planting, will help to minimise negative effects on air quality by capturing additional pollutants.

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