Glossary

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | L | M | N | O | P | R | S | T | V | W

A

  • A-use class:
    • A1 Shops — shops, retail warehouses, hairdressers, undertakers, travel and ticket agencies, post offices, pet shops, sandwich bars, showrooms, domestic hire shops, dry cleaners, funeral directors and internet cafes.
    • A2 Financial and professional services — financial services such as banks and building societies, professional services (other than health and medical services) and including estate and employment agencies. It does not include betting offices or pay day loan shops – these are now classed as “sui generis” uses.
    • A3 Restaurants and cafes — for the sale of food and drink for consumption on the premises – restaurants, snack bars and cafes.
    • A4 Drinking establishments — public houses, wine bars or other drinking establishments (but not night clubs) including drinking establishments with expanded foodprovision.
    • A5 Hot food takeaways – for the sale of hot food for consumption off the premises.
  • Accommodation hub — where there are opportunities to provide services for — and influence the travel decision at origin of — staying visitors. Most of these would be places largely separate from multi-purpose hubs.
  • Affordable housing — housing for sale or rent, for those whose needs are not met by the market (including housing that provides a subsidised route to home ownership and/or is for essential local workers). For a definition of the affordable housing products available please see the Glossary in the National Planning Policy Framework.
  • Affordability ratio — household income to house price ratio.
  • Agriculture and land-based rural businesses — these are farming, forestry, mineral extraction, privately managed estates.
  • Approaches (visitor movement) — general routes (directions) that visitors enter the Lake District.
  • Areas at risk of flooding — land within Flood Zone 2: Medium probability and Flood Zone 3: High probability. It can also include an area within Flood Zone 1 which the Environment Agency has notified the local planning authority as having critical drainage problems.
  • Areas of Search — areas where knowledge of mineral resources may be less certain but within which planning permission may be granted, particularly if there is a potential shortfall in supply.

B

  • B uses are:
    • B1 — business such as offices, research and development of products and processes, Light industry appropriate in a residential area.
    • B2 — general Industry, use for industrial process other than one falling within class B1.
    • B8 — storage and distribution uses.
  • Building of historic importance — these buildings vary, but commonly they will be good examples of relatively unaltered historic buildings where their style, detailing and building materials provides the streetscape with interest and variety.
  • Building with Nature — is a concept designed to support the creation of high quality green infrastructure throughout the planning and development process.

C

  • Carbon budget – a carbon budget is the cumulative amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions permitted over a period of time to keep within a certain temperature threshold.
  • Carbon sequestration – the removal and storage of carbon from the atmosphere in carbon sinks (oceans, forests or soils) through physical or biological processes.
  • Changing Places facilities — toilets that are accessible for people with profound and multiple learning difficulties, as well as other disabilities that severely limit mobility.
    They will be expected to conform to British Standard BS8300, and have 12 square metres floorspace with minimum ceiling height of 2.4 metres in new build developments. A minimum of floorspace 7 square metres is required in other cases. Facilities must include: ceiling tracling hoist; adult sized height adjustable bench; centrally placed toilet; screen/curtain; washbasin; non-slip floor; waste bins; wide
    tear off paper roll; shower (optional); and public access.
  • Coastal Change Management Area — an area identified in Local Plans as likely to be affected by coastal change (physical change to the shoreline through erosion, coastal landslip, permanent inundation or coastal accretion).
  • Commercial equestrian uses — commercial equestrian establishments such as liveries, commercial/ racing stables, or equestrian centres.
  • Community facilities — such as local shops, meeting places, sports venues, open space, cultural buildings, public houses and places of worship.
  • Comparison and convenience goods — convenience goods are broadly defined as food, drinks, tobacco, newspapers or cleaning materials. Comparison goods are other goods not classified as convenience goods (example fridges, dishwashers or televisions)
  • Cultural heritage (assets) — includes tangible culture such as buildings, monuments, landscapes, books, works of art and artefacts, intangible culture such as folklore, traditions, language and knowledge and natural heritage including culturally
    significant landscapes.

D

  • Decentralised energy — local renewable and local low-carbon energy sources including energy storage infrastructure.
  • Detractors — existing developments that have an adverse impact on the landscape.
  • Developer contributions — are paid by developers in order to mitigate the impact
    of new homes and other developments, which create extra demands on local facilities.
  • District heating — the supply of heat or hot water from one source to a group of buildings for example a biomass boiler and Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plants.

E

  • Ecosystems services — the wide range of services humans derive from natural capital such as food, water, plant materials for fuel, building materials and medicines, climate regulation, flood defence, carbon storage and inspiration.
  • European Designated Sites — candidate Special Areas of Conservation (cSACs) and Special Areas of Conservation (SACs) and Special Protection Areas (SPAs).

F

  • Future potential heat density — heat density that will be available during the plan period for example between 2 and 15 years.

G

  • Gateways — are defined as locations that provide orientation and information, and a variety of options for onward travel and sometimes associated facilities such as booking, hire, baggage forwarding, cafes and shops, They should provide a sense
    of entrance.
  • Geodiversity Sites — the range of rocks, minerals, fossils, soils and landforms.
  • Geographically fixed location — a location where development may be justified where it secures the conservation or interpretation of a cultural resource or a particular aspect of the natural or historic environment which could not otherwise be achieved.
  • Green infrastructure — includes parks, play areas, nature reserves, as well as rivers, ponds and other water features.
  • Greenfield (site) – Greenfield sites are areas of undeveloped land in either a urban or rural location, usually agricultural or amenity land.
  • Guest house — a private house offering accommodation to paying guests, usually larger than a bed and breakfast (the Law Dictionary).

H

  • Heat density — the demand for heat in a particular location. District heating schemes work most effectively where there is a high demand for heat for example urban areas including Windermere, Keswick and Ambleside.
  • Hydrocarbons — a compound of hydrogen and carbon, such as any of those which are the chief components of petroleum and natural gas.

I

  • In a sparse setting — where the wider area is remotely populated.
  • Inert waste — waste which is neither chemically or biologically reactive and will not decompose. Examples of this are sand, drywall and concrete.
  • Infrastructure — refers to the fundamental facilities and systems serving a place necessary for it to function such as:
    • — highways infrastructure
    • — sustainable transport infrastructure
    • — service and utilities infrastructure
    • — enhancement and maintenance of the historic environment and heritage assets
    • — biodiversity or wildlife corridors
    • — enhancement of the public realm
    • — maintenance and enhancement of public rights of way
    • — open spaces, local green space, sports and leisure provision and/or play areas
    • — flood defences and mitigation and adaptation
    • — education provision
    • — health facilities
    • — facilities providing accessibility for all e.g. Changing Places facilities.
  • Infrastructure Delivery Plan — A Plan which sets out the infrastructure requirements to support planned new development

L

  • Lakeshore — lakeshore is the area surrounding open water where the lake is the dominant feature in the landscape and directly affects landscape character above all other influences. The lakeshore will vary in scale according to other landscape characteristics and also in character including semi-natural, rural, designed landscape and developed lakeshore.
  • Light pollution — any adverse effect of artificial light including sky glow, glare, light trespass, light clutter, decreased visibility at night, and energy waste.
  • Local Authority Collected Waste (LACW) - Formerly known as municipal waste) includes household, commercial and industrial waste that the District Councils collect, rubble from Household Waste Recycling Centres and grounds maintenance waste.
  • Local Green Space designation — a way to provide special protection against development for green areas of particular importance to local communities. Green areas can be valued because of their wildlife, historic significance, beauty and/or recreation importance.
  • Local need — need which is generated within the National Park.
  • Local need housing — housing which can only be occupied by someone who can demonstrate a local connection, this is secured through the use of occupancy restrictions. No price control mechanism is applied so these homes are not defined as ‘Affordable Housing’. But the local occupancy clause does in effect reduce open market values resulting in ‘low cost market’ housing.
  • Locality – geographic areas which reflect the social and economic relationships between adjoining parishes. Further defined in the Housing Supplementary
    Planning Document.
  • Low embodied carbon — embodied carbon refers to carbon dioxide emitted during manufacture, transport and construction of buildings materials, together with end of life emissions. Low embodied carbon refers to materials with lower carbon intensities such as timber.

M

  • Major mineral extraction — substantial extensions to, or reworking of, existing mines or quarries which have a significant impact upon the landscape, local communities or transport system.
  • Masterplan — a masterplan is a document which includes spatial layout and overarching vision, used to structure land use and development. A masterplan will need to be based on public input, surveys, planning initiatives and policies, existing development, physical characteristics, and social and economic conditions. A landowner or developer will prepare a masterplan and undertake public engagement as part of developing their masterplan. The landowner or developer can present the masterplan for endorsement by the Authority and, if agreed, this will be a material consideration in determining future planning applications.
  • Mitigation Hierarchy — is a tool that guides users towards limiting as far as possible the negative impacts on biodiversity from development projects.
  • Mobility as a Service — offers an opportunity to improve how people and goods move. It uses a digital interface to source and manage the provision of a transport related service(s) which meets the mobility requirements of a customer.
  • Multi-purpose hubs — are defined as places with multiple uses, shops, places to find information, accommodation and a choice of transport options. They also have stable resident population.

N

  • National Park – National Parks are areas of exceptional natural beauty which benefit from special protection and management, with great opportunities for everyone to enjoy the outdoors.
  • Natural capital — the world’s stock of natural assets which include geology, soil, air, water and all living things.
  • Natural Flood Management — the alteration, restoration or use of landscape features to reduce flood risk.
  • Non-energy minerals are defined as:
    • aggregates — minerals that are used primarily to support the construction industry; in Cumbria, these include both land won and marine dredged sand and gravel, and crushed rock;
    • industrial — minerals that are necessary to support industrial and manufacturing processes and other non-aggregate uses; in Cumbria, these include brick-making mudstones, industrial grade limestone, gypsum and peat;
    • building stones — minerals used for building and roofing; in Cumbria, these include limestone, sandstone and slate.

O

  • Open space — all open space of public value, including not just land, but also areas of water (such as rivers, canals, lakes and reservoirs) which offer important opportunities for sport and recreation and can act as a visual amenity.
  • Outstanding Universal Value (attributes of) — cultural and/or natural significance which is so exceptional as to transcend national boundaries and to be of common importance for present and future generations. A Statement of Outstanding Universal Value is agreed by UNESCO World Heritage Committee and can be found in the Nomination Dossier of the World Heritage Site.
  • Overbearing effect — the impact of a development or building on its surroundings, particularly a neighbouring property, in terms of its scale, massing and general dominating effect.
  • Overlooking — the effect when a development or building provides a view over adjoining land or property, often causing loss of privacy.
  • Overshadowing — the effect of a development or building on the amount of natural light presently enjoyed by a neighbouring property, resulting in a shadow being cast over that neighbouring property.

P

  • Picturesque Movement — a reaction to the Classical Revival style of architecture that included irregularly planned landscapes, follies, grottos and asymmetrical buildings, mostly in the Italian style.
  • Primary Shopping Area — defined area on the Policies Map where retail development is concentrated.
  • Privately managed estate — a land holding which can inclulde both property and land within a single ownership.
  • Proportionately high — where the identified housing need is high in relation to the resident working age population.

R

  • Recreation hub — where the main attraction is some form of activity such as walking and cycling. Such places may be the start point for walking or cycling routes and may be a natural location for cycle hire, cafes and small outdoor shops.
  • Redevelopment — building new construction on a site that has pre-existing uses or renovating existing uses on a site.
  • Regionally important geological and geomorphological sites (RIGS) — is a term
    that has been used for many years and is still used to describe Local Geological/geodiversity Sites.
  • Renewable and low carbon energy — includes energy for heating and cooling as well as generating electricity. Renewable energy is energy produces from renewable sources for example wind, solarm geothermal and hydropower. Low carbon technologies are those that can help reduce emissions (compared to conventional use of fossil fuels).
  • Retail and town centre uses are:
    • — shops, financial and professional services, food and drink, drinking establishments and hot food takeaways (A use classes)
    • — assembly and Leisure uses (D2 use class)
    • — offices (B1 Use)
    • — community facilities, arts, culture and tourism uses.
  • Reuse of a traditional building — changing the use of an old building from its original use to a different function whilst retaining its historic features.
  • Rural exception sites — small sites used for affordable housing in perpetuity where sites would not normally be used for housing.
  • Rural Service Centres — Ambleside, Backbarrow/Haverthwaite, Bootle, Bowness and Windermere, Broughton in Furness, Caldbeck, Coniston, Glenridding / Patterdale, Gosforth, Grasmere, Hawkshead, Keswick and Staveley.

S

  • Showcase Areas — the areas identified as the Windermere Showcase Area, the Ullswater Showcase Area, and the Keswick and Borrowdale Showcase Area which epitomise the Lake District’s credentials as a National Park and World Heritage Site, and provide opportunities to improve the sustainable movement of people and enhance the visitor experience.
  • Special Qualities — all the national parks in England, Wales and Scotland have an aim and purpose to promote understanding and enjoyment of the ‘special qualities’ of their area. It is the combination of these special qualities that led to these areas being deisgnated to be protected as national parks, and distinguish each national park from each other and other parts of the country. The Lake District National Park’s Special Qualities are found in the World Heritage Nomination Dossier.
  • Sustainable Development — at a high level, it is meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
    There are three overarching objectives — economic, social and environmental
    which are interdependent. Further information can be found in National Planning Policy Framework.
  • Surface water drainage hierarchy — generally aim to discharge surface water run-off as high up the following hierarchy of drainage options as reasonably practicable:
    • 1: into the ground (infiltration)
    • 2: to a surface water body
    • 3: to a surface water sewer, highway drain or another drainage system;
    • 4: a combined sewer.
  • Sustainable active travel options — walking, cycling.
  • Sustainable Drainage Systems — to replicate the drainage patterns of natural systems by using cost-effective solutions with low environmental impact to drain away dirty and surface water run-off through collection, storage and cleaning before allowing it to be released slowly back into the environment.
  • Sustainable tourism development — any form of development, management or tourist activity which ensures the long-term protection and preservation of natural, cultural and social resources and contributes in a positive and equitable manner to the economic development and well-being of individuals, working or staying in protected areas. As defined by a Position Statement adopted by National Parks England on Sustainable Tourism, 2013.

T

  • Tourism Hub — where the main attraction is one or more tourist attractions, but which can also promote and provide sustainable travel options.
  • Traffic managed area — where measures have been put in place to address a traffic issue for example congestion.
  • Transport interchange — a place with clear options for the interchange between services and transport modes.
  • Travel Corridors — popular travel routes through the Lake District which are heavily used by tourists for example A591, A592 and the A66.
  • Travel Plan — requirements of what a Travel Plan should include is provided in National Policy Guidance.

V

  • Valley accessed managed area — refers to valleys which have travel restrictions usually to manage visitor pressure.
  • Village — Askham, Bampton/Bampton Grange, Bassenthwaite; Braithwaite, Chapel Stile/Elterwater, Crosthwaite, Embleton, Ennerdale Bridge, Eskdale Green, Lane End (Waberthwaite), Lindale, High/Low Lorton, Penruddock, Pooley Bridge, Portinscale, Ravenglass, Rosthwaite/Stonethwaite, Silecroft, Threlkeld, Troutbeck/Troutbeck Bridge, Witherslack.
  • Visual intrusion — an adverse impact on the landscape and surrounding land uses caused by new development or a landscape detractor.

W

  • Waste development — general non-exhaustive list of matters which can be considered as waste operations:
    • - metal recycling sites
    • - energy from waste incineration and other waste incineration
    • - landfill and land raising sites (such as soils to re-profile golf courses)
    • - landfill gas generation plant
    • - pyrolysis/gasification
    • - material recovery/recycling facilities
    • - combined mechanical, biological and/or thermal treatment
  • Waste Hierarchy – The Waste Hierarchy sets out a hierarchy of options for managing waste in terms of what is best for the environment.
  • Welfare reason — horses and similar livestock may require stable accommodation/housing or other shelter to protect them from the cold and damp or very hot weather. An outdoor arena would not be required for welfare reasons.
  • Whole Estate Plan — a document prepared by individual land owning estates. They set out the assets of the estate and the opportunities and threats which the estate may encounter, and describe their plans for the future. A Whole Estate Plan will be based on public engagement and evidence.
  • Windfall sites — sites not specifically allocated in the development plan, but which may come forward unexpectedly during the plan period.
  • World Heritage Site – World Heritage Sites are sites considered to be of Outstanding Universal value – places or buildings which are considered to have special importance for everyone. They represent the most significant or exceptional examples of the world’s cultural and/or natural heritage recognised under the terms of the 1972 UNESCO Convention concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage.