Damsons from the Lyth Valley copyright Val Corbett

Glossary

Adits: an almost horizontal shaft into a mine for access or drainage.

Bloomery: a type of furnace to smelt iron. It's named after the 'bloom' that was produced - a mixture of iron and slag.

Cairns: a mound of stones.

Charcoal burning platforms or pitsteads: areas of flattened or compacted ground used for charcoal burning.

Cultural heritage: The name given to objects or places which have aesthetic, historic, scientific or social value in the past, present or future.

Dressing floor: in mining, a place where metallic ores were crushed and washed to remove waste, forming a concentrate which could be used in a smelter.

Farmsteads: A farm or the part of a farm made up of its main buildings and adjacent grounds

Global Positioning System (GPS): A series of satellites and an electronic receiver are used to accurately position location.

Historic Environment: encompasses all those material remains that our ancestors have created in the landscapes of town and countryside. It covers the whole spectrum of human activity from the largest - towns, cathedrals or motorways, to the very smallest - signposts, standing stones or flint tools.

Hut circles: Prehistoric circular houses were made by building a low bank of stone and earth. The banks which survive usually surround an area of level ground.

Pele tower: Defensive structures of small stone buildings, unique to the north of England. They were designed to withstand short sieges. Usually they were 3 storeys high.

Pillbox: an often squat building with thick, loopholed walls and a flat roof, designed to accommodate a variety of weapons. Usually strategically positioned to cover a vulnerable point in a defensive system.

Radiocarbon dating: is a technique used to date materials. It uses the naturally occurring radioisotype carbon-14 to determine the age of materials that have carbon in them.

Ring cairn: a low, wide, circular ring or bank of stones surrounding an open, roughly circular area which is, or was initially, free of cairn material. The inner and outer faces of the bank may be kerbed.

Scheduled Monuments: Scheduled monuments range from prehistoric standing stones and burial mounds, through the many types of medieval site - castles, monasteries, abandoned farmsteads and villages - to the more recent results of human activity, such as collieries and wartime pillboxes. Scheduling is only applied to sites of national importance and is the only legal protection specifically for archaeological sites.

Settling ponds: in mining, a pond used for the deposition of ore sediment from waste water collected from ore washing. The fine material that had passed through earlier processes would be suspended at the top of the pond and could be siphoned off and collected for use.

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Created with support from the Heritage Lottery Fund